JASMINE   CULTIVATION    BY  SHGs ( TAMILNADU)  

Introduction

Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. The flower is used for various purposes viz., making garlands, bouquet, decorating hair of women, religious offering etc. It is also used for production of Jasmine concrete which is used in cosmetic and perfumery industries. More than 80 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Gundumalli / Madurai Malli), J. auriculatum (Mullai) and J. grandiflorum (Jathimalli / Pitchi). The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction.

Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country with an annual production of 77247 t  from the cultivated area of 9360 ha. The flowers produced in the state are being exported to the neighbouring countries viz., Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Middle East countries. The major jasmine producing districts of Tamil Nadu are Dindigul, Salem, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, Trichy, etc. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings  are less than 1 acre.

Package of practices

Varieties

 The species-wise recommended varieties are Gundumalli (Jasminum sambac), Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Auriculatum) and Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Grandiflorum).

Soil and Climate

Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days.

Land Preparation and Planting

One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 30cm3. Each pit should be applied 10 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m.

Irrigation

First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type.

Manuring

It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g  each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July.           

Inter Cultural Operations

Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent   weedings  are done once in 2-3 months.               

Pruning

Training is basically done to give the desired shape to the plant whereas, pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.

Plant Protection

  1.  Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l  is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l  is recommended.

  2. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot - Drench the soil around plant with Copper   oxychloride  @ 2.5 g / l .

Season of flowering and harvesting

Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise.

Backward and Forward Linkages

The crop is grown widely in Tamil Nadu and the major inputs like planting material, fertilizers, etc.  are available  locally. The flowers have a good demand in the local market as well as it is being exported to some of the South East / Middle East Asian countries. No problems are anticipated on inputs or on marketing front. No new infrastructures need to be created for the activity.

Project Cost                

SHGs can take up the jasmine cultivation on own land or leased land. The project cost for jasmine cultivation in three acres of land including the cost of land lease is detailed below - 

 

Particulars

Cost (Rs.)

A. Land lease cost (Rs. 12000/ acre; 3 acre)

36000

B. Material Cost

 

Planting material (1953 cuttings/acre; Rs. 2/cutting)

11718

Farm Yard Manure (17750 kg/acre; Rs. 0.25/kg)

13313

Fertilisers/acre - N-106.5 kg @Rs. 8.9/kg; P2O5-213 kg@Rs. 18.75/kg; K2O-213 kg @ Rs. 6.4/kg; 3 acres

18915

Fuel for Irrigation (72 ltrs of fuel/acre; Rs. 21.5/litre)

4644

Plant Protection Chemicals (4 lit/ac.; Rs. 250/litre)

3000

Fencing (Live Hedge)

3000

C. Operation and Labour (excl. Labour on harvesting)-

            150 man days/acre; Rs. 60/man day

27000

D. Harvesting charges (Rs. 3.5/kg of flower; 750 kgs/acre)

7875

E. Miscellaneous

895

Total Project Cost

126,360

Depending upon the area as well as the soil fertility, the lease cost varies. However, we have taken an average price of Rs. 12000/acre/year

Sources of Funding

Borrowers/Groups are normally expected to provide a minimum margin of 15% of the project cost as their share and the rest is considered as bank loan. However, as the scheme is being implemented under SGSY, subsidy would be available to an extent of 50% and this can be reckoned towards margin.

The details of sources of funding are given below -

                                                                                                    (Amount in Rs.)

Total Project Cost

126,360

Subsidy reckoned towards margin (50%)

63,180

Bank Loan (50%)

63,180

 Assumptions

 The various assumptions for working out economics are  enlisted below -

Quantity/

Plant/year (kg)

Cost/kg (Rs.)

Total Cost(Rs.)/

acre/year

10.00

0.25

4437.50

0.06

8.90

947.85

0.12

18.75

3993.75

0.12

6.40

1363.20

Total Cost on manure & fertilizer per year

10742.30

      Labour requirements (man days)/acre      -          

Particulars/Years

1

2

3

4

5

6

7...

Land preparation including formation of irrigation channels

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Digging of pits

20

5

 

 

 

 

 

Filling back of pits & planting

20

5

 

 

 

 

 

Application of manures & fertilisers

5

10

10

10

10

10

10

Irrigation

15

15

15

15

15

15

36

Application of Plant Protection chemicals

2

3

3

3

3

3

6

Interculture

48

40

40

40

40

40

40

Pruning

-

8

10

10

10

10

25

Fencing(live hedge)

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total labour (man days)

150

86

78

78

78

78

78

Yield parameters:

Particulars/year

1

2

3

4....

Flower yield in kg/acre

750

1,500

2,500

3,500

Farm gate price (Rs/kg)                    -      18

Rate of interest (%)             -      12

Net Income available for repayment (%) -      60

Repayment period               -      5 years  with 2 years grace

Cash Flow & Profitability

The estimated income and expenditure.

                                                            Year                             (Amount in Rs.)

Particulars

 1

 2

  3

 4

 5

 6

 7

Income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By sale of flowers

40500

81000

135000

189000

189000

189000

189000

Total

40500

81000

135000

189000

189000

189000

189000

Expenditure:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Maintenance

Cap.

71400

80400

90900

90900

90900

90900

On Lease rent

Cap.

36000

36000

36000

36000

36000

36000

Total

Cap.

107400

116400

126900

126900

126900

126900

Net Income

13500

-26400

18600

62100

62100

62100

62100

Jasmine cultivation in three acre of leased land would give Rs. 62100 /- per year from the fourth year onwards to the group members apart from the wages.

Internal Rate of Return

The financial analysis of the unit indicates that the unit is highly viable as detailed below -

                                                                                               Year

Particulars

1

  2

3

4

5

6 

7

Cost:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Capital Cost (Rs.)

126360

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recurring cost (Rs.)

 

107400

116400

126900

126900

126900

126900

Total Cost (Rs.)

126360

107400

116400

126900

126900

126900

126900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benefit (Rs.)

40500

81000

135000

189000

189000

189000

189000

Total Benefit (Rs.)

40500

81000

135000

189000

189000

189000

189000

Net Benefit (Rs.)

-85860

-26400

18600

62100

62100

62100

62100

Discount Factor

0.8695

0.7561

0.6575

0.5717

0.4971

0.4323

0.3759

BCR

1.09: 1

NPW

34181

IRR

24.62%

The BCR and IRR for the project work out to 1.09:1 and 24.62% respectively

 Repayment Period

The borrowers can repay the loan in 5 years after considering 60% of the net income towards repayment of principal and payment of interest, as detailed below -

                                                                                                                (Amount in Rs.)

Year

Loan

Outstanding

Interest

(12%)

Net

Profit

Repayment

of Principal

Payment of

Interest

Net

Surplus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

63,180

7582

13,500

0

7582

5918

2

63180

7,582

-26,400

0

7582

-33982

3

63180

7,582

18,600

3578

7582

7440

4

59602

7,152

62,100

30108

7152

24840

5

29494

3,539

62,100

29494

3539

29067

Sensitivity & Risk Factors

 As in the case of any other commercial agriculture, jasmine cultivation is also prone to market risks. 

Conclusion      

The project is technically feasible, economically viable and bankable. With a projected profitability of Rs. 25200/-  per year per acre from the fourth year onwards, the IRR works out to more than 24%. With the demand for jasmine on the rise and the activity being  labour  intensive, the activity can be profitably taken up by women SHGs.